Chemical elements
  Vanadium
    Isotopes
    Energy
    Preparation
    Applications
    Physical Properties
    Chemical Properties
      Hypovanadous Oxide
      Vanadous Oxide
      Hypovanadic Oxide
      Vanadic Oxide
      Hypovanadous Fluoride
      Vanadous Fluoride
      Vanadium Tetrafluoride
      Vanadium Pentafluoride
      Vanadyl Difluoride
      Vanadium Oxytrifluoride
      Vanadium Dioxyfluoride
      Hypovanadous Chloride
      Vanadous Chloride
      Hypovanadic Chloride
      Divanadyl Chloride
      Vanadium Oxymonochloride
      Vanadyl Dichloride
      Vanadium Oxytrichloride
      Vanadium Oxydichloride
      Vanadous Bromide
      Hypovanadic Bromide
      Vanadium Oxymonobromide
      Vanadyl Dibromide
      Vanadium Oxytribromide
      Hydrated Vanadium Tri-iodide
      Vanadium Suboxide
      Hypovanadous Oxide
      Vanadous Oxide
      Hypovanadic Oxide
      Hypovanadates
      Intermediate Vanadium Oxides
      Vanado-vanadates
      Vanadium Pentoxide
      Orthovanadates
      Sodium Stannovanadates
      Vanadates
      Pyrovanadates
      Metavanadates
      Polyvanadates
      Double Vanadates
      Heteropoly-Acids with Vanadium
      Vanado-phosphates
      Molybdo-vanadophosphates
      Vanado-arsenates
      Molybdo-vanadoarsenates
      Tungsto-vanadoarsenates
      Molybdo-vanadates
      Tungsto-vanadates
      Uranyl-vanadates
      Molybdo-vanadosilicates
      Tungsto-vanadosilicates
      Vanado-selenites
      Vanado-tellurites
      Vanado-iodates
      Vanado-periodates
      Oxalo-vanadates
      Pervanadic Acid
      Pyropervanadates
      Orthopervanadates
      Vanadium Monosulphide
      Vanadium Trisulphide
      Vanadium Pentasulphide
      Vanadium Oxysulphides
      Hypovanadous Sulphate
      Vanadous Sulphate
      Vanadyl Sulphites
      Vanadyl Sulphates
      Vanadic Sulphates
      Vanadyl Dithionate
      Ammonium Orthothiovanadate
      Ammonium Pyroxyhexathiovanadate
      Sodium Orthoxytrithiovanadate
      Sodium Orthoxymonothiovanadate
      Vanadium Selenides
      Vanadyl Selenite
      Vanadyl Selenates
      Vanadium Subnitride
      Vanadium Mononitride
      Vanadium Dinitride
      Alkali Vanadyl Nitrites
      Vanadium Nitrates
      Vanadyl Hypophosphite
      Vanadyl Phosphates
      Vanadous Pyrophosphate
      Vanadyl Arsenates
      Vanadium Carbide
      Vanadyl Cyanide
      Potassium Vanadocyanide
      Potassium Vanadicyanide
      Vanadium Ferrocyanides
      Ammonium Vanadyl Thiocyanate
      Vanadium Subsilicide
      Vanadium Disilicide
      Vanadium Boride
    Detection, Estimation
    PDB 1b8j-2i4e
    PDB 2jhr-6rsa

Hypovanadic Chloride, VCl4






Hypovanadic Chloride, vanadium tetrachloride, VCl4, can be prepared synthetically from the lower chloride, VCl3, by heating in a stream of chlorine at 600° C. Another convenient method consists in passing dry chlorine over ferrovanadium contained in a hard glass tube heated in a combustion furnace. The reaction is expressed:

2FeV + 7Cl2 = 2FeCl3 + 2VCl4.

The vanadium tetrachloride distils over and is purified from any ferric chloride present either by distillation or by extraction of the product with carbon tetrachloride, in which only the vanadium halide is soluble. Sulphuryl chloride, thionyl chloride, sulphur monochloride, and phosgene can all be used in the last reaction instead of chlorine, and the ferrovanadium also can be substituted by vanadium carbide, V4C3, nitride, VN, subsilicide, V2Si, disilicide, VSi2, or pentoxide.

Vanadium tetrachloride is a reddish-brown, viscous liquid, which boils at 153.7° C. at 768 mm. and melts at -109° C. Density at 0° C., 1.8584. The dielectric constant has been investigated. The electrical conductivity is extremely low even near the boiling-point. On being heated to 900° C. in the presence of iron it undergoes reduction to the metal. It decomposes slowly and spontaneously in a dry atmosphere at ordinary temperatures into vanadous chloride, VCl3, and chlorine. In moist air it undergoes slow hydrolysis with formation of hydrochloric acid, which gives rise to the usual fuming effect; on being thrown into water it is immediately hydrolysed and forms vanadyl dichloride, VOCl2, which gives a blue solution. The tetrachloride is stable only at temperatures above about 630° C. It is too unstable to form double salts with other chlorides. In benzene solution, however, it reacts with ammonia and its derivatives, e.g. aniline, to yield compounds which consist of one molecule of the tetrachloride in association with from three to six molecules of ammonia or its derivative.


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